SEO – the Basics You Should Know

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What is it?

SEO is a carefully created method of improving the probability of your web page appearing on the results page of a search engine query. The nearer the top of the search engine results page your web site appears, the more likely that searchers will click on your web site link and go on to purchase the product or service you represent. You can perform search engine optimization yourself, or hire an expert to do it for you. There are approved ways to improve your standing and ways that can get you banned. It’s important that you do the optimization correctly to avoid getting your web site shut down.

Who needs it?

Any small business owner with products or services advertised online should make the effort to optimize their web site so as to achieve the best results when the search engine spiders visit your site. There are SEO algorithms that are used that are generally proprietary and different search engines look for different components in order to determine the rank of the specific web page. Naturally, each web site owner wants to achieve the highest possible page ranking for the products or services that are displayed on the web site. Getting your page ranking as near to the top of the search results as possible gives you more web browsers seeing your link.

How to get the best results

The best results for SEO is to determine the specific algorithm used by a particular search engine and write your web site to use the best possible mix of keywords, links, and placement so as to improve your ranking. Attention should be paid to using the keywords or keyword phrases correctly. Not only the number of times they are used, but in what context they are used. Even the placement of keywords on the page is important for best results. Another factor that is important is that of links to other web pages.

How does SERP apply?

SEO best results are returned on the SERP or Search Engine Results Page. When a searcher on the internet uses terms in a search engine query box, the search engine returns results on a page called the Search Engine Results Page. This can be a few links up to thousands of links, but few searchers look beyond the first page or two of results, since the results often are less relevant as you move further down the page. The ranking of your web page up toward the top of the list is what can increase your sales significantly.

Page rankings

Page rankings are the somewhat arbitrary number assigned to web pages based on the SEO results identified by the search engine spiders or robots. Each major search engine relies on a different algorithm for ranking, although there are similarities between the three major search engines, MSN. Yahoo and Google. The goal of search engine optimization techniques is to have the web page appearing on the first page of search results for the specific query.

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Source by Alan Lim

How To Boost The Reach Of Your Website

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Having a website is the first step in every business’ online journey. It’s also key to achieving goals and objectives on the internet, provided it’s rich in features. The success of a website or the business, will depend a lot on its features and functionalities. After all, users will only show interest in a site that serves some of their purpose. Which is only possible the website is technically adept and packs in all those features required to make an impact on the internet. Not to forget, every business wants its website to reach to as many users as possible as only this can help it realize its goals.

In fact, every business looks for the ways and techniques that to help its website reach to more users on the internet and create an impression. This task is easier said than done as only a few select development companies know how to make that happen. Apart from hiring a well-known company for your web development projects, you need to understand the evolving trends in the market to get the most out of it. After all, your website will be as good as your understanding of the market and its dynamics, so a competitor analysis becomes important to get great results with your website.

More so, there are basically three ways in which you could make your website reach to more people and they include, having mobile-friendly design, multi-browser compatibility and all-device support. All these routes are quite helpful in taking the presence of a website farther than it actually is. With responsive design, it becomes easy to target the massive pool of mobile users and let them access the website on their own terms. This is perhaps the easiest and most effective manner of making website helpful to as much users as possible. After all, mobile users are something nobody in today’s time can give a miss.

Secondly, your website should be multi-browser compatible so that users have the freedom of accessing it from the browser of their choice. If a website is not compatible with all the browsers in the market, this will limit its reach to a great level for sure. Similarly, all good websites are supposed to support all devices, irrespective of the screen size and operating system they use. This is how a website is made easily accessible for those using as different devices as tablets, mobiles, desktops etc. This route helps websites to remain accessible to one and all.

In a nutshell, it all boils down to the kind of development work your website has gone through. After all, having great features will depend on the kind and quality of development team hired and taken advantage of. This is how your website’s reach and impact touch a new high and thus helping your business realize all its goals with effortless ease. So, you should hire only well-known developers so that your website can reach to the intended markets and users with effortless ease. This is how businesses grow and expand on the internet and carve out a unique identity of own.

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Source by Yusuf Javed

7 Benefits of Having School Websites

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Having a website, whether for personal or business purposes, is now commonplace. Many however, prefer to build blogs (weblogs) rather than a static site because the former is much easier to implement.  But whether it is a blog or a website, the bottomline is always online presence; and schools need to have online presence via building school websites.

There’s a lot to gain for schools having their own school websites. With a minimal investment, a school website provides the following advantages to the school:

1.      A potent promotional tool of the school’s services and facilities. Websites could take the place of more costly traditional billboards and flyers.  Further, with websites the world, rather than the locality, is your  audience.

2.      Add credibility and build positive image of schools especially it is well designed, has quality content and periodically updated.

3.      Avenue for an interactive information exchange. With added website features such as chat room, school websites facilitates immediate response to queries about the school.

4.      Can serve as an online school database. The school can upload a bunch of information about the school into the website. This can serve as an online filing cabinet which is more efficient compared to our traditional filing system.  With the search button in your website, your reader can readily access the data uploaded in your website.

5.      A virtual office which is open 24 hours a day seven days a week. This saves money and time which could be used to other investment priorities of the schools.

6.      A venue for implementing a feedback mechanism.  Because it is very convenient to use the Internet, visitors could easily post feedback on school services and other related issues which they would not bother with telephones and letters.  With the interactive feature of your website, you can readily respond to the queries and issues.

7.      A venue for hands-on learning tool for students and faculty especially so if the school offers information technology related courses.

These are just among the many advantages of building school websites which can be up and running with a very minimal investment.   The only recurring costs are domain registration, hosting services and remuneration for website administration.

Creation of an effective school websites however, does not happen overnight. By being effective, it would mean that the website is able to maximize the benefits as earlier presented.  Careful planning should be the first step. Further, getting qualified and reliable people for the website project are necessary condition for a successful website. Outsourcing experts for the project can be cost effective, but is to the advantage of the school if there are in-house experts contracted on a long term basis for reasons of project sustainability.

If you would like to get an affordable expert who can build an effective school website, please visit a website solution provider at www.websforschools.com.

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Source by Beatrice Gibbens

Women and Submission Wrestling

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Most people in the Maryland, Virginia and Washington DC area consider wrestling a male sport. However, today, many women are getting into grappling as well. It is not the type of grappling that we think of when we think of men's wrestling, but submission wrestling. The little known facts of women's submission grappling are the reason I wanted to write about women and submission grappling instead of men's wrestling.

It is often times called grappling, submission grappling or submission fighting. No matter what you call it, it is a term that describes the focus of grappling an opponent into submission or the realization of defeat. Many combative sports have submission rules. Some of these rules have been modified into wrestling. Submission grappling is a combination of different grappling arts combined into one sport. A submission wrestling event is a fight that does not allow hitting of any kind.

Other combative sports practice throwing and pinning, whereas submission wrestling uses a technique of grappling an opponent until that opponent either tires and can no longer continue or they simply give in to their opponent. These matches are quite different from the regular freestyle of wresting matches where pinning and holding are often used in a very short time ending the match with a "pin". Submission wrestling can last much longer than freestyle grappling due to neither opponent wanting to give in.

Many women are finding submission wrestling to be quite a popular sport for several reasons, but the main one is probably because women's lower body is more powerful than their upper body so many of the grappling techniques are easier to accomplish. Some older female wrestlers compete in submission wrestling in the male categories, if they have become exceptional at submission grappling. This is done by petitioning the Commissioner to compete in the male division.

The purpose of submission wrestling is not to hurt an opponent, but to get the opponent to concede the defeat. A player can be disqualified at any time for injury done to another opponent even after they have secured a submission. Without a submission, the player can be disqualified if the referee determines that the player is intending harm to their opponent.

Serious submission wrestling is compared to Jiu Jitsu and other mixed martial arts. The female version of submission grappling began in the 1970's. It has since become a well liked and used method of female wrestling. Participants travel all over the world competing in matches. Now fighters from other mixed martial arts forms are switching to submission wrestling.

The female version is not for everyone, however for the more masculine or manly female, this is the perfect sport to compete in. Not only do you enjoy the thrill of competition, but this form of wrestling can also be used in self-defense. Imagine taking down your attacker and getting them to either concede to losing the battle or holding them there until the police or a passer-by comes along. Imagine the look on that dude's face!

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Source by Lloyd Irvin Jr

Pros and Cons Of Submitting Your Article To Multiple Directories

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The Value Of Article Marketing

One can never underestimate the value of article marketing, which has become an integral part of internet marketing.   Simply put, article marketing is the process of writing and publishing useful content as a means of drawing an audience’s attention to a particular product or service.  Submitting an article to multiple directories can be a way to gain visibility for your product or service.  On the other hand it can be a way to drive the nail in your marketing coffin.

It should come as no surprise that marketers from every discipline are writing and publishing articles as a way to connect with potential customers, and send traffic to their websites.

Once created, your content can be published in a variety of places, including print newspaper publications, online publications, article sites, ezine sites, and blogs.

Points To Consider

Here are a few points to consider, if you are considering article marketing as a way to promote your product or service.

If you are new to article marketing, it can be daunting process to get your material published on some of the major article sites such as Ezine Articles, Associated Content, and Article Base, because of very strict editorial guidelines related to the number of links that can be included in your article, the quality of the links, and where those links can appear.  

I learned the hard way that when publishing to these sites, it is critical that you learn and remain aware of the rules of a particular site and make sure your article adheres to those rules.  This will ensure your content is accepted for publication.

Failure to follow the rules can get you banned from a site permanently.

In all instances, you want to make sure that you check your article for grammar and spelling errors before submitting to any site.

Multiple Directories For Article Submission

There are literally hundreds of other article posting sites online, that offer less restrictive article submission.   While some reviewing is done on these sites, articles are not reviewed as painstakingly as the major article directories, and they are not as restrictive when it comes to the number or quality of links you can include in your article.  

If you are new to article publishing, these smaller article directory sites are a great place to get your feet wet before you actually start trying to publish to the larger sites.

In many cases, these free article directories as they are called, are set up and run by internet marketers wanting to get high-quality backlinks to their own website.  To facilitate that, they post their own content in addition to offering others the opportunity to post content to their article directory site as well.

For some, this is seen as a good way to build “backlinks” and increase search engine visibility for your website.

Choosing an Article Directory

When considering adding your content to multiple article directories, it is a good idea to check out the article directory site to make sure it only allows quality articles, that offer useful information, and that are not over-crowded with advertising links.  This kind of loosely run directory can end up being a poor-quality article site – one that you would not want to post your article on.  Article sites that allow unrestricted linking often end up being excluded from search engine results, especially Google, and can end up hurting rather than helping your marketing campaign.  

If you choose to post your article on a site like this, in the final analysis, it will defeat your purpose rather than help you gain the exposure you need.

In the end, you can never get enough online exposure for your product or service.  While submitting your article to multiple directories is a great way to promote, you should carefully consider which directories to use.   If you choose wisely, it can go a long way to help create the exposure needed to ensure that your content is visible to the world.

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Source by Charlotte Clark-Frieson

Printers – Digital Press

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In the late 90’s the printers Denver specialists used began to revamp the digital printing process which reduced cost as well as production time. New equipment was introduced and the technology was perfected to allow printers to obtain high quality digital prints in just minutes. Nowadays, printers Denver companies are using are quickly being replaced with a new technology that is more affordable and highly sophisticated and in fast moving market like Denver, you must keep up with the competition or you will soon be left far behind.

IBM, Xeikon, Agfa, and Xerox all were battling to be the best. The productions included fixed imaging on press plate as well as plateless imaging where the production was direct to paper. Artists were noticing the ease of using the digital printers and began leaving the dark rooms to come out into the new light.

The new models of digital printers Denver companies were using were sophisticated and offered the ability to create short runs in just minutes and the modifications that were being made to the existing equipment was creating a new fad of image production everywhere. The reduction in cost to create these high quality prints created a boom in the market and made way for more technology and more companies to jump into this fast paced market.

The companies that were battling for first place included Xeikon who seemed to always be in the lead of the new technology. They started creating more and more press configurations that were designed to meet any budget. The use of the equipment was geared towards architects, photographers, draft designers, business executives and more. The uses of digital printers Denver specialists use today however are virtually endless.

The ability to create a digital print and send it through an electronic file all over the city as well as the world made the market that much more valuable. There was no longer a need to send prints through the mail where they could be lost, damaged or destroyed. The designs and templates are easily created from press or completely electronic and then a click of the mouse will send them to anyone, anywhere within minutes. The digital prints can be printed from any location, being placed on CDs, smart drives, and even emailed to business locations where printing capabilities are readily available.

The digital printers Denver experts use offer many new benefits as well as lower the environmental impact. With a dramatic reduction in chemicals that are hazardous to the earth, the digital printing era has brought with it a new clean, green feel and Denver folks can really appreciate this with nature virtually at their doorstep. The other benefits for those who use the equipment is the cost and time. To use digital printing is much more affordable than the traditional methods and the time spent in production is extremely lower than ever before. The ease of editing, cropping or altering images is made easy with the various software options designed just for digital images. The old methods are fading away and the dark rooms disappearing as more and more people are discovering that digital image printing is the only real sound choice for business.

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Source by Geoff Graham

Types of Digital Printing machines

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Digital printing is a term that encompasses a lot of different equipment that produce different products and different levels of quality and expectations.

First let’s start with the term digital printing:
Digital printing’s definition is taking an electronic file and directly from that file creating your final output without going to plates or any other type of intermediary step or proof. It can be black or color.

The black is usually done by copiers on the low end and machines such as the Xerox Docutech or the Kodak Digimaster. These machines are capable of @ 100 copies a minute. Even these machines use toner although they are capable of higher resolutions than copiers. Although, higher quality than copiers the docutech & digimaster still don’t rival true offset quality of true offset presses.

The reasons these machines evolved and have become so popular is the ability to do low quantities at reasonable costs. They are limited as to the products and substrates that customers will use these machines for.The evolution of doing this same thing to color was a natural evolution. The higher the quality the better it could replace offset on the low end of the quantity spectrum.

Also as color digital printing machines improved customers deemed quality acceptable for more and more products and uses. Color copiers came first and use toner in the four base colors of CMYK to reproduce color photographs and images. The quality is on the low end for color and is susceptible to scratches and rubbing more than liquid ink. Then there is the classification of digital presses. There are toner and two types of liquid ink presses.

All of these color machines have strengths and weaknesses like any other kind of manufacturing process. Toner based machines are the IGen3 and the Nexpress. The quality is much better than color copiers but can still have toner look to them and sometimes don’t print smooth screenes. The only true offset entries are either Heidelberg or Ryobi machines. These actually produce temporary plates to produce the print job that is on press at that time.

This is true offset printing but has some limitations because the vast % of machines are small format and don’t have the ink carrying capacity that larger presses do. These machines also can’t print variable data printing where the image or text can be changed from sheet to sheet. The other liquid ink machine is the HP Indigo family. The Indigo 3050 can print variable data while rivaling offset quality.

The Indigo digital press family is the only machine that can print variable data as well as being capable of printing PMS spot colors as well. Customers will use this machine to print postcards, brochures, posters, sales sheets, flyers and any other printed product. These are your choices in digital printing. As final users have continued decreasing quantities of their orders and use more and more of customized marketing digital printing’s market share has increased. It is a powerful option to promote your business from small startups to large corporations.

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Source by Printing Guy

An Introduction to the Magento E-Commerce Platform

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Magento is an open source e-commerce platform. An e-commerce platform like Magento allows a business to setup a website selling products to customers online, while providing an administrative interface where the business can manage their products, customers, orders among other things.

Magento was first released in 2008 and since then it’s grown to become the most popular e-commerce platform today (30% market share in May 2015) and is now powering over 200,000 online stores.

Magento has a free Community Edition (CE), and a pay-per-year Enterprise Edition (EE), and in this post we will mainly discuss the Community Edition and where it stands out from other e-commerce platforms.

Hosted vs self-hosted

Some e-commerce platforms are hosted, that is, they are tied to the hosting of the company. Setting up an e-commerce site with them is alike to renting a service; your e-commerce site is tied to their system. This has an advantage in that it is very easy to set up and get started, but the downside is that you don’t truly own your own site and become reliant on the provider.

Magento, on the other hand, is self-hosted, which means have your own copy of the site. The downside is that it is up to you (or your developer) to find a hosting provider to set up the platform on. The advantage though is that you completely own the site, can do any modifications you wish, and can move it to another hosting provider at any time.

Internationalization

Features for international support is built right into the platform. Support for multiple languages, multiple currencies, tax configuration and VAT are a standard part of the system and easily set up and configured from the administration panel.

Theming & Multiple Stores

Magento allows the owner to switch the theme (look) of the site without changing any functionality. Multiple “front stores”, which can be switched between by the customer and is often used to provide different language versions of the site, is built right into the platform.

A powerful feature of Magento is that it can run several websites outwards while sharing the same products and customers among the websites, all managed from the same administration interface.

Open Source

Magento itself is an open source platform, built upon open source frameworks and programming languages. This gives it the benefits of outside scrutiny into the source with the result of improved design and security, and at the same time making it more accessible for outside developers.

Customization

Because of its flexible modular architecture at its core, Magento was built to be extended. In fact, much of the core functionality of Magento are module extensions themselves built by the Magento team. This allows for an astonishing level of customization, even allowing modification of the core functionality. This level of extendability and customization sets Magento apart from other e-commerce platforms and is one of the biggest reasons for its success.

Third party extensions

Extensions allow the developer or business owner to add specific functionality to the store that is not a standard part of the platform, without having to develop that feature themselves, often saving time and money.

Magento has thousands of third party extensions, more than any other e-commerce platform, some which are free and some which are paid for.

As mentioned earlier, because of Magento’s modular architecture, extensions can modify any part of the platform allowing features that change it at its core, making extensions possible such as Reward Points that adds reward points to customer when buying products which can then be used for discounts at checkout.

Other features

Other features Magento comes built in with includes a very powerful and extremely flexible promotion and discount rule system, multiple front & store support (mentioned earlier), configurable dynamic product attribute system, sales and order tracking system, excel import and export of products, a Content Management System (CMS), newsletters and many more.

Costs

Magento requires a decent hosting server to run well; this is a consequence of Magento’s feature rich and extendable architecture. Shared hosting is not recommended, so there may be extra cost involved in setting up a dedicated server.

As mentioned earlier, the community edition which we have discussed so far is free and comes with more features than any other e-commerce platform. In the case of a site that does not require many additional features, this option can be very affordable.

Where it can become costly is when features outside of Magento’s standard palette is required because of the time and skill required to develop them. Third-party extensions are often used to extend Magento and common price range is 50 – 200 USD per extension. Compared with developing the functionality yourself this is often a great cost saving.

Magento Enterprise Edition

A quick word on Magento Enterprise Edition. This is the non-free edition of Magento, costing around 15,000 USD per year. Most suitable for very large clients, it offers additional features such as increased security, performance, functionality such as in-store credit, gift cards, ERP integration, among many others. Finally, with Enterprise Edition you get access to full around the clock professional support from Magento through phone and email.

Summary

Magento offers a complete e-commerce platform solution. The free community edition is more than powerful enough for small to medium sized businesses, and often for large businesses as well. Where the standard features are not enough, it offers third-party extensions to expand the already feature rich platform, and Magento’s modular architecture allows skilled developers to extend and customize the platform to the business’s needs.

As Magento is currently the most powerful and popular e-commerce platform and is still growing and being developed according to the best industry standards, as well as having a growing third-party extension market, we can be certain to have a secure, up to date and well-supported platform for years or even decades to come.

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Source by Vito Li

Symbols in A Passage to India

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Introduction:

Forster is a distinguished novelist both in modern English and world literature history. All his life, his main achievements are six novels and two short story collections. His works ignite criticisms of different views, among which individual relationships and the theme of separateness, of fences and barriers are the main problems that the author always focuses on. After the author’s two visits to India, the great novel A Passage to India (1924) was produced, which continues his previous style, i.e. probing the problem of personal relationship in a more complicated situation, and my article aims at having a comparatively deeper discussion about the crisis of human relationship in A Passage to India. Notably, it is a novel by E. M. Forster set against the backdrop of the British Raj and the Indian independence movement in the 1920s. In a word, it is a novel of cultural, social, psychological, and religious conflict arising mainly from clashes between India’s native population and British imperialist occupiers. Altogether there are certain parts in this article highlighting on the author’s philosophy, the imperialism, racialism and colonization in A Passage to India from the perspective of symbolism.

The Use of Symbolism in A Passage to India:

As far as the definition goes, generally, the word ‘symbol’ stands for something else, esp. a material object representing something abstract- Middle English symbole, creed, from Old French, from Latin symbolum, ‘token, mark’, from Greek sumbolon, ‘token for identification’ (by comparison with a counterpart). From the viewpoint of literary & literary critical terms, it indicates an object, person, idea, etc., used in a literary work, film, etc., to stand for or suggest something else with which it is associated either explicitly or in some more subtle way. E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India is painted with the colour of a wide range of symbols. They include-

       1. The Marabar Caves

           a. The Reverberation of the Cave

           b. The Echo Representing a Hindu Resonance

       2. The Image of the Green Bird

       3. The Wasp Symbol

       4. Social Events: Parties, Picnics, and Celebrations

       5. Mosque, Cave, Temple, and Weather

       6. Nothing as a Metaphor

       7. The Infinite Sky

       8. The Pankhawallah Image

       9. The Snake Imagery

     10. The Collision of the Boats

     11. Other Insignificant Images

1. The Marabar Caves:

The imaginary caves in A Passage to India are modelled by E. M. Forster on actual caves about twelve miles from the city of Gaya in the state of Bihar. Nevertheless, the actual caves are known as the Barabar Caves, not the Marabar Caves (Forster’s fictional name for them). A Buddhist leader of the second century B.C, being liberal of other religions, ordered workers to cut the caves from rock faces as holy places for monks of the Ajivika religion. There are four Barabar caves. Their even inner walls maintain expanded echoes. 

Forster’s A Passage to India is intense with the type of symbolic language that we generally connect with poetry in spite of the deep political themes of the novel. Forster depicts the manifestation of a blaze (in one of the more amazing passages) against the extremely reflective shell of a Marabar cave:

“The two flames approach and strive to unite, but cannot, because one of them breathes air, the other stone. A mirror inlaid with lovely colours divides the lovers, delicate stars of pink and grey interpose, exquisite nebulae, shadings fainter than the tail of a comet or the midday moon, all the evanescent life of the granite, only here visible. (2.12.4)

The Marabar Caves stand for all that is unfamiliar about natural world. The caves are older than anything else on the earth and represent emptiness and meaninglessness—a factual void in the earth. They disregard both English and Indians to act as guides to them, and their weird and wonderful attractiveness and hazard disturb tourists. The caves’ strange feature also has the power to make tourists such as Mrs. Moore and Adela face parts of themselves or the cosmos that they have not formerly recognized. The all-reducing boom of the caves causes Mrs. Moore to see the darker side of her mysticism—a declining promise to the world of relationships and a growing ambivalence about God. Adela faces the disgrace and humiliation of her understanding that she and Ronny are not in fact attracted to each other, and that she might be attracted to no one. In this sense, the caves both devastate meaning, in reducing all remarks to the same sound, and expose or describe the unspeakable, the aspects of the universe that the caves’ visitors have not measured until now.

The  Reverberation of the Cave

No matter what the sound is, e.g., sneezes, whistles, shouts, noise etc. return the equivalent echo in the first of the Marabar Caves: boum, or a variation of it such as ou-boum. This echo shows to ridicule the Hindu idea that the whole universe, and everything in it, consists of a particular spirit, Brahman (not to be confused with Brahmin or Brahma). Even the human soul, called atman by Hindus, is part of this spirit. Therefore, a whistle is a sneeze and a sneeze is a soul, since all are Brahman—that is, all are the same essence. The echo frightens Mrs. Moore because she unclearly realizes that it symbolizes a power that decreases everything to equality—a dull, bare sameness. Even biblical words that she had lived by become part of the Brahman and thus lose their meaning, as reported by the narrator in the last paragraph of Chapter 14. Mrs. Moore thinks about the cave-incident and tries to write a letter to her children, Stella and Ralph. 

“[S]uddenly, at the edge of her mind, Religion appeared, poor little talkative Christianity, and she knew that all its divine words from “Let there be Light” to “It is finished” only amounted to boum. Then she was terrified over an area larger than usual; the universe, never comprehensible to her intellect, offered no repose to her soul . . . .”

After that, her experience in the cave troubles her, and she becomes bad-tempered and sad. Her life and everything she believes in lose their meaning like the biblical words. India had charmed her when she arrived in the country but now it drives her back. Its interesting mystery has turned into the “muddle” spoken of by other Britons.  No, she does not curse the country and its people as Major Callendar and Mrs. Turton do. Nor does she take Adela’s side against Aziz in the days leading up to the trial. But, she can no longer tolerate India; it is too much for her. She decides to leave; she does not even wait to give evidence for Aziz.

“Why should I be in the witness box?”

she later says to her son Ronny.

“I have nothing to do with your ludicrous law courts.”

The narrator then reports Heaslop’s thoughts:

“She was by no means the dear old lady outsiders supposed, and India had brought her out in the open.” 

She is oppressed by the Asian heat, her health declines and she dies on the ship and becomes part of the huge barrenness of the Indian Ocean. 

Adela Quested is captivated with India like Mrs. Moore when she arrives in the country. But, she fears that its unrestrained variety will turn her into just another pessimistic, disappointed Anglo-Indian if she marries Ronny Heaslop and becomes an inhabitant of India. However, she sees a shine of optimism in Indian history, especially in the person of the Mogul emperor Akbar (1542-1605), who ruled from 1556 until his death. He set up modifications (to unite the common people) that centralized government functions. Furthermore, though he himself was a Muslim, he encouraged conversation between people of all religions—Hindus, Muslims, Parsis, and so on—and even tried to begin a new religion that united parts of other religions. 

Adela asks Aziz in Chapter 14 about Akbar, “[W]asn’t Akbar’s new religion very fine? It was to embrace the whole of India.” Aziz answers by saying that Akbar was a great ruler and Akbar’s plan of a particular Indian religion was incorrect.

“Nothing embraces the whole of India, nothing, nothing, and that was Akbar’s mistake.”

Adela then says,

“I hope you’re not right. There will have to be something universal in this country—I don’t say religion, for I’m not religious, but something, or how else are barriers to be broken down.”

She ends up saying that without a unifying power she would find it complicated as an Anglo-Indian to “avoid becoming like them [Mrs. Turton and Mrs. Callendar].”

Afterward, she enters one of the upper caves alone and scratches a wall and hears the echo. She later says that Aziz assaults her it is at this point. She struggles back with her field glasses, escapes the cave, races through a field of cactuses that tear her skin and insert needles in it, and returns to Chandrapore with Miss Derek. She is confused, in a state of fright. She frequently hears the echo after her recovery. But, she has no hint regarding its meaning unlike Mrs. Moore. When she asks the old woman what it means, Mrs. Moore replies,

“If you don’t know, you don’t know; I can’t tell you.”

She fails to understand the sound and becomes like the other English men and women who cannot understand Indians. She yet starts to question her own insightfulness and starts to recognize that she has wrongly blamed Aziz. But, Ronny and the others, who are using her as an tool to penalize the Indians, influence her that she was correct about Aziz.  However, she gathers the bravery at the trial to confess that she was wrong and drops the charges. Then she leaves India too. The leaving of Miss Quested and Mrs. Moore predicts the historical British departure from India in 1947, which Forster may perhaps have seen as unavoidable. 

The Echo Representing a Hindu Resonance

Certainly, the most unforgettable figure of speech in A Passage to India is onomatopoeia: the boum echo in the caves. It calls to mind the om sound recited by Hindus and Buddhists. “Encyclopaedia Britannica” says about this sound, 

“The syllable Om is composed of the three sounds a-u-m (in Sanskrit, the vowels a and u coalesce to become o), which represent several important triads: the three worlds of earth, atmosphere, and heaven; the three major Hindu gods, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva; and the three sacred Vedic scriptures, Rg, Yajur, and Sama. Thus, Om mystically embodies the essence of the entire universe. It is uttered at the beginning and end of Hindu prayers, chants, and meditation and is freely used in Buddhist and Jaina ritual also.”

Different critics have explained the three sections in diverse manners. Gertrude M. White thinks that the splitting up of the novel into Mosque, Caves and Temple match with thesis, antithesis and synthesis of the Hegelian dialectics. However, G. D. Allen refuses her disagreement saying that the three sections stand for the ways of work of knowledge and of love (as specified in Hindu philosophy) as well as Islam, Hinduism, and Christianity. As said by Wilbur L. Cross, Forster has attempted to portray “the native as he appears to himself, as he appears to the British official and as he really is when his mind is revealed, presenting a civilization which the West can disturb but will never acquire.” Whereas R. A. Brower is of the view that “the communication between Britons and Indians, are more generally the possibility of understanding relationships between say two persons.”

However, most of these explanations are half-done and fall short to realize Forster’s fundamental purpose. The fact is that the three sections symbolize the three stages of man’s spiritual expedition. Forster had promoted the relationship of the seen and the unseen in Howards End and he observes the dissimilar ways in which this association can be best recognized. The unnoticed has an influence on the social, spiritual, and emotional lives of the people and Forster looks for establishing the way in which this influence is maintained best.

2. The Image of the Green Bird:

Both Adela and Ronny agree for the first time (in Chapter VII) to end their engagement; suddenly, they see a green bird sitting in the tree above them. However, they are totally unable to identify the bird. Adela thinks that the bird represents the unidentifiable feature of all of India: just when she thinks she can realize any feature of India, that characteristic alters or vanishes. In this sense, the green bird represents the muddle of India. The bird, in another capacity, indicates an unusual anxiety between the English and Indians. The English are preoccupied with knowledge, literalness, and naming, and they use these devices as a means of gaining and maintaining supremacy. In contrast, the Indians are more thoughtful about nuance, undertone, and the feelings behind words. The Indians identify that tags can blind one to significant facts and differences whereas the English demand for cataloging stuffs. The unidentifiable green bird proposes the inappropriateness of the English mania with categorization and order with the shifting value of India itself; actually the land is a hundred Indias that disregard tagging and understanding.

3. The Wasp Symbol:

The wasp becomes visible a number of times in A Passage to India, generally along with the Hindu idea of the oneness of all living things. The wasp is generally represented as the lowest creature the Hindus integrate into their idea of widespread unity. Mrs. Moore is intimately associated with the wasp, as she finds one in her room and becomes thankful of it. Her quiet regard for the wasp shows her own candidness to the Hindu idea of collectivity, and to the mysticism and indescribable excellence of India overall. Nevertheless, the wasp also symbolizes the limits of the Hindu vision as the wasp is the lowest creature that the Hindus think about. The vision is not a cure-all, but only a prospect for harmony and understanding in India.

4. Social Events; Parties, Picnics, and Celebrations:

A number of bad parties appear in A Passage to India; we witness parties such as, the Turtons’ Bridge Party, Fielding’s tea party, and Aziz’s picnic. All of these events become terribly unsuccessful. Generally, these disastrous parties function as images for the British Empire in the book.

The novel presents that each of these events go in vain because of the British need for exclusion, for hierarchies, for societal restrictions, and for setting up an us-versus-them that eternally constructs an us as better than them. Racial discrimination is an addition of this wish for segregation, and empire is also no exception to it, which is based on the standard that we are superior, more educated, more up to date, more dominant than them. Aziz’s misfortune of a picnic is just a fabulous example of how vicious the British longing for segregation can be. Nevertheless, this longing for segregation is not limited to the British single-handedly. The book unlocks as Mohurram, a Muslim celebration, advances. The Mohurram riots were connected with manifestations in favor of Aziz for the duration of the trial. Nonetheless, prior to the trial, the Mohurram problems referred to the unavoidable twists between the Muslims and the Hindus regarding the procession direction The Mohurram riots are an metaphor for the religious factionalism that continues to terrorize the South Asian subcontinent even today. Contrary to these failed social occasions, let us take a quick look at the Gokul Ashtami fiesta, which is a celebration set up to fail. The event rejoices all beings, exclusive of not a soul and nothing, not even the smallest of insects or the silliest of jokes; Godbole remembers Mrs. Moore (back in Chandrapore) and a wasp; he does not get in touch with some elevated command in his spiritual trance.

5. Mosque, Cave, Temple, and Weather:

E.M. Forster divided the novel not simply into chapters, but it is also separated into three parts entitled “Mosque,” “Cave,” and “Temple.” The parts are also ordered by the three seasons in India:

     a) “Mosque” takes place during the cool weather,

     b) “Cave” during the hot weather, and

     c) “Temple” during the rainy season.

These part divisions situate the tone for the events described in each part. The first part of the novel, in “Mosque,” Aziz’s indication to the architecture of the mosque as that of “call and response” synchronizes with the common mood of this part of the novel, where people are meeting each other at different societal functions. People are normally peaceful and open like the cold weather.

On the contrary, the climax of the novel is found in the “Cave” section of the novel. Taking place during the hot weather, feelings are irritated, and nobody seems to be able to think quietly and logically. The whole population of Chandrapore is turned wrong way up as riots and disorder encircle the trial just as Mrs. Moore’s grip on life was in danger by her knowledge of emptiness inside the cave.

Lastly, the “Temple” part tries to sweep away the confusion of the “Cave” section with its torrential rains. The chapter rejoices the Hindu belief of the oneness of all things with Godbole at the Gokul Ashtami celebration in relation to the Hindu motif of the temple, and provides us with a shaky understanding between Fielding and Aziz.

6. Nothing as a Metaphor:

Nothing in the novel is in fact something in a twist that Godbole would surely be pleased about- it is a symbol nothing. The novel starts with the word “nothing” in its first sentence. You might have observed that the novel appears gripped with breaches and cracks. The novel is almost planned like a donut, with a large hole where Adela’s experience in the cave should be. But, if you think about it, even though nothing is written about Adela’s understanding in the cave, it does not indicate that nothing happened or that nothing can be said. Actually, it is perhaps the most remarkable part of the book exactly for the reason that it is omitted. As the narrator comments that the Marabar Caves are extraordinary. The extraordinariness of nothing is definitely one of the stranger and surely forceful motifs in the novel.

7. The Infinite Sky as a Vital Symbol:

The reappearance of the infinite sky above is not meaningless. The author has intentionally done so with a view to presenting a deeper meaning through it. It happens in the successive chapters and its descriptions seem to be lively characters to us. It goes without saying that the sky is so limitless that it holds all things together and could be interpreted as a symbol of inclusiveness, but it also represents the huge area of either British colonial control or the unimaginable hugeness of India itself, to a great extent.

8. The Pankhawallah Image:

This unimportant lowborn labourer is luckily awarded with power and attractiveness. He is not aware whatsoever how far he fits into the society where he toils involuntarily for a meager amount so as to maintain himself and almost certainly a family. He does not recognize the seriousness of the emergency that has disturbed the people who had crowded encircling him in the court room. This detachment of the modest labourer has struck a blow at the small-minded working of her delirium-shrouded brain and provoked a kind of goodness of thinking in Adela. As a result, her viewpoint and vision turns out to be widened.

9. The Snake Imagery

George H. Thomson wrote a scholarly article about the snake symbol prevalent in A Passage to India; the very article appeared in “English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920”. According to him, the novel pivots on the mighty contrast between two settings: the wasteland world of ‘Caves’ and the rain soaked jungle world of ‘Temple’. The wasteland world, at the centre of which is the Marabar Hills and caves, signifies the absence of God and indicates his nonexistence. The jungle world, at the centre of which is Mau and its great religious festival, signifies the presence of God. This theme of presence and absence of God, adumbrated in the novel by Godbole and reflected in the major symbols, is reinforced by a variety of minor symbols.

The significance of snakes and images of snakes in the novel will illustrate Forster’s careful deployment of such minor symbols. But, in assessing the snake imagery in relation to the presence and absence of God, it is important to remember that the development of this theme is in many respects, non-theological. The idea of presence and absence is generalized and finds expression in the quality and nature of the reality-unreality encountered in the Indian universe.

Near the close of the novel, Aziz and Fielding go for a ride in the Mau jungle. As they near the end of their ride, we read:

“They splashed through butterflies and frogs; great trees with leaves like plates rose among the brushwood. The divisions of daily life were returning, the shrine had almost shut” (p.321).

For Aziz and Fielding, who have come together in the closing gestures of the Mau festival, the god has extended his temple even to the Mau jungle. This is important in evaluating a detail mentioned earlier in their ride:

“Presently, the ground opened into full sunlight and they saw a grassy slope bright with butterflies, also a cobra, which crawled across doing nothing in particular, and disappeared among some custard apple trees” (p. 317).

This is the first actual snake to appear in the novel. With two trivial exceptions, it is also the first real snake to be mentioned in a novel well-furnished with references to snakes, scorpions, serpents, and dragons. The exceptions are the snake said to have been cut in two by the kitchen boy and the highly poisonous Russell’s Viper said to have been found in a classroom at Government College. The first is a casual illustration of the superstitions of the uneducated Indian, the second is an illustration of the absence of order and reasonable probability in the world of ‘Caves’. Apart from these, all the snakes, serpents, and monsters are nonexistent.

At the beginning of the story, Aziz—as an afterthought—mentions to Mrs. Moore the dangers of snakes from the Marabar. The context suggests that Aziz is improvising these snakes to suit his feeling of the moment (p. 21). As it turns out, however, the Marabar is a rich source of snake images if not of actual snakes.

As the expedition to the Marabar Hills gets under way, the country is “invisible except as a dark movement in the darkness,” and in the sky “the stars of the sprawling Scorpion had begun to pale” (p. 132). Later, perched on the elephant, Adela sees a snake; a black cobra, explains Aziz. But, Ronny’s binoculars, the symbol of the inquiring intellect, reveal to Adela the twisted stump of a toddy-palm (p. 141). Inside the cave,

“the striking of a match starts a little worm coiling… the cave is stuffed with a snake composed of small snakes, which writhe independently” (pp. 147-148).

Whatever is said in the cave, the comment is always the same ‘ou-boum’, and the serpent descends and returns to the ceiling (pp. 149-150). After Aziz has lost himself among the caves, he finds the place full of grooves that lead “this way and that like snake-tracks” (p.154), and the expedition leaving the Marabar unwinds out of the corridor (p. 159).

(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/english_literature_in_transition/v009/9.2.thomson.html)      

10. The Collision of the Boats:

The occupants (Ralph, Stella, and Fielding) get wet when the boats smash together close to the floating image of the Lord. This getting soaked has figurative importance that in spite of all endeavour, in spite of mosques, caves, temples, and the holy soil of the very old land of India, the diverse cultural units cannot be included into a particular logical part.

11. Other Insignificant Images:

Once, a nameless beast or Being strikes the Nawab Bahadur’s car. This indicates the immoral repression of the natives by the bureaucrats under the excuse of ruling them on the authority of regulation and fair dealing. This and other symbols mix the different and opposing details of the story together to allow them to gush into a spacious current of huge human plea.

Conclusion:

In the end, the novel helps us to see how the flickers disclose the strange shades of colour refracted off the minerals in the stone to bring the frozen, hard stone to evanescent life. Forster’s writing style serves one of the familiar ideas of the novel: art is a way of giving shape to the muddle, of helping us make sense of the world around us. The best works of art use form not to remove the muddle, but to hold it close, to direct the readers’ attention for eternity away from the undisturbed protection of the familiar, to the unknown and strange.

Works Cited:

Arnold, Edward. “A Passage to India”, Friday 20 June, 1924. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/1924/jun/20/classics

Forster, E.M. A Passage to India. New York: Alfred K. Knopf, 1942.

“Om”.  Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 11 May. 2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/428173/Om>.

Thomson, H. George. “English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920”, Volume 9, Number 2, 1966, pp. 108-110 | 10.1353/elt.2010.1389. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/english_literature_in_transition/v009/9.2.thomson.html

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Source by Md. Ziaul Haque

Using the Cd Command to Move Up and Down in Linux Directories – Linux Commands Quick Tips

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Moving "Down" in Linux Directories

The Linux cd command can be used with "spacebar directoryname" to move "down" into a directory below the current directory without having to type in the full path to a directory that is below the current directory.

Moving "Up" in Linux Directories

You can use "spacebar .." to move up a directory (level) to go to the "parent" directory of the current directory.

    Linux Commands Training Tips: You can use a; (Semicolon) between Linux commands to run more than one command on the same line. And the pwd command shows the fill path to your current directory.

Examples of Using the cd Command To Move Up and Down Directories

The Linux cd command below changes into the directory named man, below the path of / usr / share.

The ls command below uses the – d option to show the d irectory names (only) in the man directory and not the contents of the directories (which are subdirectories) of the man directory.

The filename "pattern" of man? used with the ls command below causes the output to show only the directories beginning with "man" and ending in any other single character (only), due to the single? wildcard character.

These directories can be referred to as the man x directories, where x is a number from one to nine.

    $ Cd / usr / share / man ; ls -ld man?

To change into the man2 directory below the current directory, use "cd spacebar dirctoryname", where the directoryname is a man2 directory.

    $ Cd man2; pwd

The full path to the man2 directory is: / usr / share / man / man2

Now, to easily change up one directory "level" use "spacebar ..", instead of typing in cd and then the full path of / usr / share / man.

    $ Cd ..; pwd

Now change into the man5 directory below the current directory.

    $ Cd man5; pwd

Now combine the two dots with a directory name (and use a slash between the two dots and the directory name) to go up one directory level and then down into the man7 directory!

    $ Cd ../man7; pwd

The Linux commands covered here apply to ALL Linux distros, including Red Hat, Ubuntu, openSUSE, SUSE, Debian, Fedora and Slackware Linux.

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Source by Clyde E. Boom