Viral Infection Headache Symptoms


Caught a virus and starting to experience severe headaches? If you start to have severe viral infection headaches, then you should check them out. It will be a good idea to ensure that your symptoms do not point to a case of meningitis. There are serious consequences from having meningitis.

So what is meningitis all about? This is an infection in the membrane that surrounds your brain. Brain and spinal cord infections can be very dangerous because they cause inflammation, which places pressure on your nerves. This will cause you to have a viral infection headache.

Inflammation can also cause the following symptoms:
* Fever
* Severe headache
* Feeling confused

Severe inflammation can cause these symptoms:
* Brain damage
* Stroke
* Seizures
* Death

A bacterial infection or virus causes meningitis. The body can usually fight and beat an infection. However, when the infection travels into the blood stream, it can then go into your brain and spinal cord fluid. It can then affect your nerves and move into the brain causing inflammation and swelling. This can damage or kill nerve cells and cause bleeding in the brain. It can also cause you to have a viral infection headache.

Brain swelling is very dangerous because the brain is a soft organ in a hard box (the skull). If the brain swells, there is nowhere for it to go, except against the walls of the skull. This is what causes the most damage.

There are several causes of meningitis. These include
* Bacterial infection
* Viral infection
* Fungal infection
* A reaction to medications
* A reaction to medical treatments
* Lupus
* Some forms of cancer
* A trauma to the head or back

Bacterial meningitis is the worst type because it can kill you. It often begins as an upper respiratory tract infection. From there it travels through your blood vessels to your brain. Then it can block up your blood vessels inside your brain triggering a stroke and brain damage.

Viral meningitis is the most common form. Usually viruses that enter your body through your mouth before going to your brain and multiplying cause it. You can find these viruses in the mucus, saliva and feces.
Other viruses that may cause meningitis include:
* Chicken pox
* Flu
* Mumps
* HIV
* Genital herpes

Anyone can catch meningitis. This is especially true if your immune system is weak.

Meningitis often begins like the flu does. You may get a rash. The major symptoms include:
* Running a sudden fever
* A severe headache
* Stiff neck
* Dislike of light

Bacterial meningitis must be treated quickly. Severe bacterial meningitis will require intravenous antibiotics. On the other hand, antibiotics cannot be used to treat viral meningitis because they do not kill viruses.

Whether you are having bacterial or viral meningitis, what would be best for yourself is to get plenty of rest and give your body a break. In the meantime, drink plenty of water to flush out the toxins and go easy on your diet. Do follow the recommendations by your doctor during this period. Your viral infection headache and other symptoms will start to subside as your body recovers.

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Source by Sandra Kim Leong

The Recipe for Creating a Viral Video Worthy of Massive Views


What is it about a video that makes it go viral? Of course, videos featuring celebrities easily generate thousands of views within days. However, for the video uploaded by the average Joe or Jane, it takes a certain attention-grabbing element for it to obtain views in blowout numbers.

Anyone has what it takes to make a video go viral, and it doesn’t require anything more than a few seconds of footage taken from a cellphone cam. While luck is involved to a degree, it is much more about providing content that viewers would deem worthy of sharing through social media and word-of-mouth.

Why Would Someone Watch Your Video in the First Place?

What are the motivations for watching a video on YouTube? While some may watch a video for informational purposes, more often, people watch a video to be entertained. Whether it is a slow day in the office or because they have nothing better to do at home, people watch short videos because they want to laugh, to feel inspired or simply be amazed. For a video to leave its mark, the viewers need to undergo any of the following:

1. Laugh from the belly

2. Feel heartwarming inspiration that causes tears to roll

3. Feel their jaw drop because they just saw something unbelievable and utterly amazing

4. Make them say to themselves “Is this for real?”

5. Make them go “awe” due to the sheer cuteness of the content

Think about viral videos on YouTube that don’t involve celebrities. They all involve to an extent one of those five elements. They are also so out of the norm that people can’t help but talk about them. Consider the following examples of videos that have gone viral and how they fit into the paradigm:

Kid Beethoven – This is a video of a young boy, no more than 10 years of age completely owning a piano at a Costco store as if he was Beethoven incarnate. Patrons passing by soon became mesmerized and began filming this child prodigy on their cellphone cams. This video clearly falls under the category of being unbelievable and utterly amazing.

Soldiers Returning Home – This one’s a real tear jerker and is a compilation of service members returning home from deployment and surprising their loved ones at home or school. Whether you can relate to the video or not, it is one that brings a tear to your eyes because it reminds one of the importance of family and the tremendous sacrifices our men and women in uniform endure.

In a day and age where just about anything can be captured on film, videos are all over the Web. The ones that happen to go viral are the ones that really pull on the human emotion. These are the ones that the viewers deem worthy of being shared and soon become Web sensations as a result.

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Directory Submission Appraisal


Directory submission should not be equated with spamming search engines with a daily dose of thousands of directory submittals for a single website. A directory submission should be researched as thoroughly as all other aspects of search engine optimization. Using the appraisal system of the search engines will keep your directory submission appraising your website and keep you in the search engine result pages.

Directory submission does not allude to mass-mail marketing efforts. Your website has to be indexed by search engines and build a reputation within the confines of search engine algorithms. Directory submissions can build links and increase your viability in search engine result pages – or they can knock your website out of the realm of search engine results completely.

Search engine algorithms look at the value of the directory submission website as much as they do to the website submitted to the directory. If the directory submission website is not worthy enough for search engines, it is not worthy enough for your website. Its poor reputation with the search engines will bring down your ranking. Page rank is not the deciding factor for directory submission. Appraising the quality of the directory that you are submitting your website to is just as important.

There are a handful of directories that have gained a solid reputation with SEO experts and are submitted to religiously. DMOZ, the Open Directory Project, is a prime example. Additionally, search engine websites accept that directory submittals from other search engines are reputable. For instance, Yahoo, Google and MSN would automatically accept each other’s directories and directory submittals based on their reputation.

Past that handful – word-of-mouth fluctuates between the beneficial and the harmful. There are, however, some not-so-microscopic details that can be examined to determine a quality of a directory. These are based on known search engine algorithms and how well the directory for the directory submission plays by the algorithmic rules.

Search engines tend to look at the directory’s submission policy. The directory’s submission policy should state that an editor will be reviewing your website submission, particularly if you are paying for the submission. This implies that the website will be reviewed for quality standards by the directory submission service. If a directory’s policy merely states that you are paying to be listed in a directory, without mention of an editorial review, it is likely that search engines will see this as a negative policy and it will be reflected in the search engine results pages (SERP). The search engines will also look for evidence that this directory submission policy is actually followed through with, and not merely a statement to skirt around search engine requirements.

Search engines also see massive automated directory submissions, particularly with new websites, as a sign of search engine spam. A search engine is likely to demote your website if it is guilty of search engine spam. Paying a few dollars for hundreds or thousands of directory submittals in a short period of time is highly likely to keep your website out of the SERPS. Once you have submitted your website to the authoritative directory submission websites, it is important for you to cautiously submit your website to niche directories, content related directories, and geo-targeted directories to develop healthy linkage and traffic exposure. Examining a directory policy, reviewing the website for overt advertising, paid link farms, and obvious spam will ensure that your website will move up in the SERPS and not be knocked down into the search engine abyss.

Directory submission appraisals are a necessary part of website promotion. Search engine optimisation and website optimisation must always consider the reputation of the website from a visitor’s point of view, and from a search engine’s point of view. Appraising the directory for your website’s directory submission is an important part of reputation management and search engine optimisation. If you want what’s best for your website, appraise your prospective directories for their influence on your SERPS. A quality directory submission will help bring your website into quality search engine result pages – then you’ll be on your way to appraising your new quantity of website visitors.

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DMOZ Editors – Does Absolute Power Corrupt Absolutely?


DMOZ editors are supposed to be professionals in the category that they choose to edit and review. They are also supposed to have high standards when it comes to giving the general public quality websites with content that pertains to the category in which they are editing. But, is this really the case or does the absolute power given by DMOZ corrupt these editors into making decisions based on just what they like or as favors to the owners of the websites they are reviewing?

When you submit your website to the DMOZ directory it is then handed off to an editor to review your website, all of your website pages and to intelligently write the description of your site. Whether your website is included is in their hands, they have the power to include, delete, and even ignore your submission. How the power that DMOZ gives influences their overall behavior is another subject. You will find that the thought of having absolute power does affect each editor and reviewer in various ways.

If the editor is honest and upholds the standards that are set by DMOZ then power has not gone to their head and they understand that working as a team member to create the largest directory with quality websites is the main goal then your website will reviewed on its own merit. This is the type of editor you hope will review your website. Your website will have a much better chance of being included and at a much faster rate.

But, remember, the editors and reviewers at DMOZ are also human. No matter where you go you will find people that are not honest in their dealings. DMOZ gives them power and many do not know how to handle this responsibility in a business like manner and have unscrupulous behavior, as with any group. When one of these editors, reviews a website, it may not be gone over with the DMOZ standards in mind. The “God Syndrome” as I like to call it takes over, and they will make their decision from their own standards and ignore quality websites.

This is kind of like putting a child in a room full of chocolate and asking him to only choose the best ones out of the bunch and leave the others alone. In his mind, all chocolate is good, no matter the size, the manufacturer, or the ingredients. He will of course not pay much attention to what he is really choosing and will probably choose the flashy and colorful packaging. As a DMOZ editor looks over a website, do they really look for quality content that is useful or do they just say “This one looks fine” and goes no farther than the front page. I believe this does happen quite often as many of the websites in DMOZ only have one page and no other content. As an example, you can check out under Home, Cooking, under Chili and you will see what I mean. Many of these only have one webpage, only one to three recipes and several advertisements. Is this really considered a quality website with original, unique and valuable informational content that contributes something unique to the category’s subject?

I am not saying that every editor at DMOZ lets this absolute power cloud their judgment, but we are talking about human nature and it takes all kinds of people to create a large directory such as DMOZ, good and bad. The quality editors will do their best to include websites with high standards and will only be out to benefit the directory as a whole. But, you will also find editors that are out to make a name for themselves, get something in return for including websites or just do not really care who or what they include.

So, does absolute power corrupt absolutely? I would have to say, yes, in certain individuals that do not have the integrity it takes to be a team player, only consider themselves or their own group of acquaintances, clients, or affiliates, and love the feel of absolute power over others. If world leaders can be corrupt when given power then you must agree that an editor of DMOZ can also be corrupted, absolutely.

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The importance of managerial accounting in the workplace


Managerial accounting is concerned with the use of economic and financial information to plan and control many activities of an entity and to support the management decision course. Management accountants play important roles more specifically in planning & coordination with production, marketing and financial functions. A subset of the managerial accounting profession is cost accounting which relates to the determination and accumulation of products, processes, or service costs. Management and cost accountants are focused on the internal aspects of a business to keep it efficiently running and profitable.

Managerial and cost accountants use a lot of the same data used by financial accountants. The difference lies in the fact that the data used for managerial accounting is more likely to be used for a future orientated purpose whereas the financial accounting process is showing what has already taken place. Examples of future orientated planning are budgets, benchmarking, and profit projecting. This also means that managerial accountants can take a more proactive approach when it comes to tackling business and economic troubles that can and due arise for many companies.

Planning is a key part of the management process and although there are many descriptions of that process, a generally accepted definition would include reference to the process of planning, organizing and controlling businesses’ activities so that the organization can achieve its desired outcomes. Being able to anticipate what revenues will be and forecasting the expenses that will be incurred to achieve those revenues are critical activities in the budgeting process. That ability is crucial to many aspects of a company and allows employees’ to make more educated business decisions.

The internal orientation that management accountants have to their companies differs from the predominantly external orientation of financial accounting. Financial accounting is more externally important to such people as investors and shareholders. Management accountants work hand and hand with other internal departments such as merchandising, accounting, marketing, web and more. An example of this would be a managerial accountant working with a merchandiser to figure out how many units of a garment they can purchase in the next year and still have a good profit margin.

The benefit of management accounting is that it is not constrained by generally accepted accounting principles, which means that approximate results can be generated quickly for decision-making activities.  Which means while accuracy is valued in the data, relevance is more important for managerial accounting reporting. This is also helpful because it allows the managerial accountant to adapt to different economic climates, business strategies and departments changing needs.

In order to become a managerial accounting professional a bachelor’s degree with a major in accounting is usually a requirement.  A management accountant should possess great analytic and people skills since they will be dealing with many different people and departments in a professional role. A management accountant may also become a Certified Management Accountant (CMA) by passing a respective board four-part test. The CMA examination is given in a computer-based format using objective questions only. In addition to the status that comes along with this professional designation, CMAs are often given greater professional responsibilities and higher compensation than those who do not have a CMA title.

There are many helpful resources that are available to managerial accountants acquire valuable information that pertains to their professions. An example of a helpful resource is The Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) that is dedicated to advancing the role of the management accountant and financial manager within the business organization, and provides relevant professional certification. Becoming a member of the IMA would be helpful to anyone in a business role that involves making decisions based on financial information.

The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) states that management accounting as practice extends to three areas: strategic management, performance management and risk management. Strategic Management is advancing the role of the management accountant as a strategic partner in the organization. Performance Management is developing the practice of business decision-making and managing the performance of the organization. Risk management is contributing to frameworks and practices for identifying, measuring, managing and reporting risks to the achievement of the objectives of the organization.

The future possibilities for managerial accountants are endless. Since they are used so much in planning financial aspects of business they will always play a crucial role in a wide range of companies. The career path of a managerial accountant is a safe one because it is timeless and able to adapt to ever changing analytics and technologies that can aid in the planning process.

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Source by Michelle Moran

Higher SEO Rankings For Your Article Marketing


Lately, search engine optimization (SEO) has driven traffic and sales for many online businesses. Free traffic from search engine optimization has been the way to having a successful business online. Search engine optimization (SEO) has become very attractive to internet marketers building their business. However, with more people using this marketing method, the more the competition. So, it is very important to know what you’re doing to stay ahead of the competition.

Hence, an effective strategy to reach high rankings in the search engines. First is to simply write informative articles on a topic you know well. Then send your completed article to hundreds, or even thousands of directories online. You can even include offline sources like newspapers, magazines and newsletters. Doing this will put your article out in front of millions of eager and hungry readers. And in turn will attract tens of thousands of potential customers to your website.

You will be sharing information through your article and receive a gigantic amount of traffic. The directories, are not hard to find. As a matter of fact, you can find tons of popular directories. The secret is to target a specific niche with each of your articles. Of course, the content has to be unique and high quality.

Think of it like this, you are not only getting traffic, but you are also helping someone with the information. The best thing about article marketing is that you can generate traffic for life from one article. This is called leverage, my friends. Work once and reap the benefit for a lifetime. Well, not exactly working once. This method takes lots of time and effort. In addition, you must know the right way to submit to directories.

To reach thousands of targeted visitors, you must send your articles to thousands of popular directories and high traffic websites. If you check out fiverr.com, you can find someone that will distribute your articles to hundreds of the best directories. Going this route you can outsource the hard and tedious work and share your articles to help readers. This will in turn improve your credibility. Article marketing is a proven method to attracting many potential customers to your business. More traffic means more sales of your products.

These strategies might seem old, but they are tried and true. Also, you can use these articles to build back-links for a blog. Give it a try and just be amazed on how much traffic your website or blog will get.

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Viral Infection – Information on Viral Infection


Viral infection: Infection caused by the presence of a virus in the body. Depending on the virus and the person’s state of health, various viruses can infect almost any type of body tissue, from the brain to the skin. Viral infections cannot be treated with antibiotics; in fact, in some cases the use of antibiotics makes the infection worse. The vast majority of human viral infections can be effectively fought by the body’s own immune system, with a little help in the form of proper diet, hydration, and rest.

Common viral infections may be diagnosed based on symptoms. For infections that occur in epidemics (such as influenza), the presence of other similar cases may help doctors identify a particular infection. For other infections, blood tests and cultures (growing microorganisms in the laboratory from samples of blood, body fluid, or other material taken from an infected area) may be done. Blood may be tested for antibodies to viruses or for antigens (proteins on or in viruses that trigger the body’s defenses).

Viral infections are hard to treat because viruses live inside your body’s cells. They are “protected” from medicines, which usually move through your bloodstream. Antibiotics do not work for viral infections. There are a few antiviral medicines available. Vaccines can help prevent you from getting many viral diseases.

The body has a number of defenses against viruses. Physical barriers, such as the skin, discourage easy entry. Infected cells also make interferons, substances that can make uninfected cells more resistant to infection by many viruses.

Viral infections are caused by the virus. The virus enters the body through swallowing, inhalation, infected food, transfer from human to human contact, or transfer from insect bites. The instant the virus has entered the body, the immune system immediately tries to rid the alien particle from the system. Sometimes the immune system wins and sometimes the virus begins to attach itself to an available cell.

Viral infections in small children can be more difficult to deal with simply because children tend to be cranky when they are ill. Soothing their symptoms as they arise can help them cope with the illness. Adults who contract viral infections should listen to their body. Sleeping as needed and drinking ample fluids can help the body fight off the viral infection faster. Viral infections should be diagnosed by a physician.

Rotaviruses are a group of viruses that can cause severe viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children. They cause about half of all hospitalised cases of gastroenteritis in children less than five years of age. In temperate climates, …

Unlike bacteria, viruses are not “living” organisms but capsules of genetic material. They require living hosts — such as people, plants or animals — to multiply. Otherwise, they can’t survive. When a virus enters your body, it invades some of your cells and takes over the cell machinery, redirecting it to produce the virus. The virus may eventually kill the host cells. Some viral infections, such as influenza and HIV, are contagious. Others are not.

Viral infections can produce inflammation of the meninges (causing viral meningitis), the brain (causing viral encephalitis), the spinal cord (causing myelitis), or spinal nerve roots (causing shingles). Viral encephalitis is often accompanied by viral meningitis. Viral encephalitis is more serious because it directly affects the brain rather than the meninges.

Some viral infections are mild, causing fever and a general feeling of illness (malaise), often without specific symptoms. Usually, viral meningitis produces symptoms that are similar to those of bacterial meningitis (fever, headache, vomiting, weakness, and a stiff neck) but that are much less severe.

Yellow fever is a serious viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in parts of Africa and South America. Vaccination is a legal requirement for people travelling through infected areas.

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Top 5 Free Places To Advertise Your Business Online


Many small business owners put up a website with the expectation that they will receive a flood of new customers from the great global online marketplace that is the Internet. Inevitably they are met with doubt and disappointment when their expectations are not met. Just like a brick and mortar business, an online website must be advertised before customers will find it to purchase products and services. Read on to learn about the top 5 free places to advertise your business online.

List Your Business on the DMOZ

The DMOZ, or the Open Directory Project, is the best online directory your business can be listed in. Not only is it one of the most used generic directories on the internet, it’s also highly regarded by Google because of the strict standards their editors uphold for listing websites. A listing in the DMOZ can help increase your Google search engine ranking over time providing your website with even greater long-term exposure.

Create a Google Local Search Listing

Google gets more queries each day than all of the other search engines combined. When you create a free listing for your business with Google Local Search, users close to your business will see your location marked on a map displayed prominently on the top right of their screen every time they search for terms related to your business.

Search Engine Submission

Many companies offer paid services to submit your website to all of the major search engines. What you probably didn’t know is that you can do this yourself manually and pay nothing. There are only 5 major search engines that you desperately need to submit your website to: Google, Yahoo, Microsoft’s Bing, AOL, and Ask. Others with smaller market share will probably pick up your listing in time.

Create Content for Free Article Marketing Directories

One of the best ways to advertise is your business online is to write articles that are directly related to your business and submit them to free article marketing directories. For example, if you own a craft store and want to sell crafting products online, create and submit a tutorial that leads readers back to your website to purchase the supplies they will need to complete the project. There are many free directories you can submit to, but EZineArticles.Com is one of the better ones.

Blog Listing on Technorati

Most small businesses today are keeping a blog in addition to or as a part of their business website since content rich sites tend to attract more return visitors. If your business keeps a blog, be sure to get a free listing on Technorati.

There are many more places where businesses can advertise their websites for free online. The Top 5 free places to advertise your business should provide you with a solid start to promoting your website online. With a well advertised website, traffic and sales should increase in time.

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Directory Submission: -How to improve Your Directory Submission Acceptance Rate?


Unlike Search Engines, the process of review of directory submission is carried out manually, by “Experts”. They also have stringent rules and guidelines for listing your site. You may ask why; but these rules are there to ensure good directory submission and effective review procedures. It helps the editor to evaluate a site and decide whether to accept or reject it. All these combined results in a great deal of scrutiny being carried out before your site gets listed on directories.

But you can easily make your submissions an instant success with most of the directories. All you need to do is pay a little attention to the details you provide for Directory Submission. Your little efforts will be richly rewarded.

Here are few golden rules you should always follow before beginning Directory Submission.

Before You Begin Directory Submission

Before you begin directory submission, make you have taken note of the following:

• Do not submit a mirror page; most directories don’t accept mirror pages.
• Do not submit any “Under construction” pages.
• Always submit the top-level domain of your site.
For example: The correct URL to submit for my site is www.submit2please.com. Do not add index.html or any sub domains.
• Check all your links. Broken links are a sign poor site management, which may not go down well with the directories.

Chose the most appropriate Category for your site

Web directories are sorted by topic and editors frequently take great pride in ensuring that everything stays well categorized. So, put up your website in the right category. The search engines look at the various links that are on the page on which you are listed. This can lead to better rankings.

Tip: To find appropriate categories for a site, you can go to Dmoz.org and type in the product/service keyword. You can also search for your rival site and check out the category under which they are submitted.

Pay attention to the description and use of key words

The most common restriction forced by directories is on the size of your description and keywords. The trick is to come up with such a description for your site that can conveniently fit into 100, 150, 200, and 250 characters length. Do all this before you get down to the real job of directory submission. The reason for keeping four lengths of description is that you never know which one will be accepted in which directory. Remember that you may not be able to pen down everything about your site, so write what is unique and relevant. Avoid using a sales pitch and/or promotional language. Try and be informative and friendly.

Here are few more points you should always bear in mind while writing a description for directory submission:

• Do not repeat your title or site URL in the description.
• Do not use all caps; use mixed case.
• Use complete sentences.
• Do not say the word site or website, as in “this site offers”
• Do not use any hype like “the best” or “excellent.”
• Fit your main keyword phrases in but do not repeat them.

Once you have taken care of all these, you have over come the most difficult part of directory submission. The same should be followed for keywords. When it comes to directory submission, all you need to do is to pick up the most appropriate one and hit enter.

Tip: This is what I call an ideal description for my site Submit2Please.com, “We submit Web Sites, Articles, Blogs, Press Releases, Scripts and RSS Feeds to Search Engine Friendly Directories. The directory submission is carried out manually by trained in-house directory submission experts.”

Site Title

Pay attention to your site title. You should ideally not use any URL and key words in it, until and unless they are absolutely necessary to describe your site. Remember, be precise and straight forward!

Tip: You should identify at least 3-4 titles for your site and rotate them during Directory Submission. In this way you can get the maximum optimization benefit for your site through Directory Submission.

All the above mentioned “Golden Rules” stand good for most directories on the internet including Dmoz.org. Thus, by exercise necessary caution before directory submission, you can save a lot of precious time and energy. With the right advice and steps, directory submission may be the most significant thing you will ever do for your website.

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Challenges faced by Human Resource Managers in the Era of Gloablization


“The real wealth of a nation is its people. And the purpose of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. This simple but powerful truth is too often forgotten in the pursuit of material and financial wealth.”

INTRODUCTION

Globalization of Indian economy is compelling organization to rethink their future strategies. It is now widely recognized that transformation is a pre-requisite to their survival and growth. Business organization in India especially public enterprises are experiencing winds of change. For the HR function, there would not be a more existing and challenging opportunity than managing the complexities of change and transformation. HR today is playing a lead role along with business functions in creating the necessary momentum and internal capabilities.

Now first let us understand what we mean by globalization.

WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?

Every day we hear it on news, we read it in the newspapers, we overhear people talking about it… and in every single moment the word ‘globalization’ seems to have a different meaning. So what is globalization?

“…integration of business activities across geographical and organizational boundaries.”

“The capacity to treat the world as one market while…dealing with many culturally diverse merchants.”

“…the process by which markets expands to include competitors for customers and productive inputs without regard to national boundaries”.

“…doing business with a world wide focus… rather than doing business in an international market with the focus from a home-country viewpoint.”

Globalization is not just a recent phenomenon. Some analysts have argued that the world economy was just a globalized 100 years ago as it is today. Yet the term is used since the 1980’s, reflecting technological advances that have made it easier and quicker to complete international transactions, both trade and financial flows. The most striking aspect of this has been the integration of financial markets made possible by modern electronic communication.

At a political and economic level, globalization is the process of denationalization of markets, politics and legal systems i.e. the use of the so-called global economy. Globalization refers to an extension beyond national borders of the same market forces that have operated for centuries at all levels of human economic activity (village markets, urban industries, or financial centers). It means that world trade and financial markets are becoming more integrated.

At a business level, we talk of globalization when organization decides to take part in the emerging global economy and establish themselves in foreign markets. First they will adapt their products or services to the customer’s linguistic and cultural requirements. Then, they might take advantage of the internet revolution and establish a virtual presence on the international market place with a multilingual corporate website or even as an e-business.

Overall, globalization requires a combination of linguistic, engineering and marketing knowledge that is not easily available. (Sparrow, Paul, R, 2006)

Globalization is linked to four major aspects:

  1. Trade
  2. Capital movements
  3. Movement of people
  4. Spread of knowledge

DRIVERS OF GLOBALIZATION

Driving factors of globalization can be divided into four groups:

MARKET DRIVERS

  • Convergence of per capita income
  • Convergence of life styles
  • Organizations behavior as global customers

COST DRIVERS

  • Push for economics of scale
  • Advances in transportation
  • Emergence of newly industrialized countries with productive capability and low labor costs

COMPETITIVE DRIVERS

  • Growth of global networks making countries interdependent
  • Rise of new competitors intent on becoming global competitors
  • Increased formation of global strategies alliances

GOVERNMENT DRIVERS

  • Reduction on tariffs and other trade barriers
  • Privatization of industry in many parts of the world
  • Creation of trading blocks (i.e. EU)

Globalization has elevated the importance of HRM development in organization. These changes have led to the notion of the HR system as a strategic asset. Many of the arguments about processes of globalization within the HR function rest on the assumption that there has and continues to be longitudinal change in the conduct of HR. in the intervening seven years a wide range of contextual changes have led to significant globalization of activity, including: the transfer of work abroad, either to outsourced providers or on a global in-sourcing basis; the e-enablement of many HR process; greater sophistication in the HR information technology, new structures for international HR functions; greater competition for talented staff at all levels of organization; more protracted and strategic talent pipelines. In particular, there has been a very strong marketing, corporate communication and IT influence on the HR function. The HR function is realigning itself in response to this process of cross-function globalization (building new alliances with these functions) creating new activity streams and new roles and skills required of the HR function (Sparrow, Brewster and Harris, 2004).

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS: THEIR ROLE IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

Issues facing HR are expected to change dramatically in the next decades. Thus, HR professionals must play special roles in dealing with these changes and must develop specific competencies to support these roles.

Workplace flexibility is expected to be on the rise as the future workplace, the ‘virtual office’ is characterized by creative and flexible work arrangements. As more employees work off-site-up to two thirds of an organization in the 21st century – there will be an increase in emphasis on performance and results as opposed to the number of hours worked. In addition, off-site employees can expect to attend fewer meetings. Specified work will become much more collaborative and management will spend nearly all its time managing cross-functional work teams who enjoy a lot of autonomy. In essence, there will be a movement, a trend towards a decentralized model of HR.

HR managers will have to accommodate employees in their virtual work locations and find ways to manage corporate culture, socialization and employee orientation. In order to obtain and maintain a competent workforce, they must act as organizational performance experts and shape employees behavior without face to face meetings.

Another expected change in HR is the ‘Global Business’ concept world trade knew a major growth during the last years and there is forecasted as well the growth of international businesses, especially among small firms. Organization rely more and more organization HR specialists as the facilitators of work across borders and among different cultures. Therefore, they must be knowledgeable of other cultures, languages and business practices. They will be required to develop and manage an international workforce, maintain written and unwritten corporate polices for transportability to other cultures, keep top management informed of the costs of not paying attention to the transnational issues and provide their services to a variety of locations world wide.

Concerning the recruitment in the above mentioned ‘global business’ it will be important which strategy will be adopted by the management.

Globalization will impact HR managers by requiring new skills such as language capabilities. For e.g., in order to recruit employees from other cultures, HR managers will either have to learn new languages or else they will certainly have to have foreign speakers on staff. But in order to facilitate communication among people coming from a wide range of language backgrounds, in most multinationals, it is preferred to speak English.

However, when we talk about Globalization and culture, then how does this relation influence businesses and HR professionals’ attitudes?

Organization must take into account cultural differences that shape managerial attitudes, when developing multinational management programs. For e.g., British managers value individual achievement and autonomy, whereas French managers appreciate competent supervision, fringe benefits, security and comfortable conditions, while Indian managers gives more importance of their culture and tradition.

HR managers must therefore be familiar with and understand other cultural norms to promote organization diversity. An organization that recognizes and promotes cultural diversity will benefit because it will be employing the market that it serves. With increasing globalization and competition within the market, a diverse workforce is conducive to attracting and retaining a strong client base. While competing in an international market, employees from diverse national backgrounds provide language skills and understanding of other cultures. HR professionals will also be responsible for providing cultural sensitivity training for the organizations employees and for managers throughout the entire organization. (Czebter, Anamaria, 2002)

DILEMMAS FACED BY AN HR HEAD

 Unlike the other industries where HR is considered as a functional need, there is a need to view HR as a partner or a business enabler. One of the constant challenges faced in this area is to align HR to business. The five R’s therefore, assume utmost significance in HR strategy. The HR team needs to get in right from the stage of defining the business strategy to Resourcing, Recruiting the right talent, Retaining the talent, Retraining and Restructuring.

However, if we see the scenario of HR in IT company, we find that flexibility appears to be the key for success and survival as IT has become such a dynamic field due to the constant developments and upgradation in the area of technology and changing customer requirements. Topping all these reasons is also the trend of globalization, which tries the HR test of endurance. The ability and the willingness to modify job structure, job classification and the organizational structure as often and as quickly as necessary are important elements in a successful recruitment and retention strategy for IT professionals. This challenges of managing expectations and change puts constant pressure on the professionals.

The challenge does not stop with recruiting the right person but with how we are going to manage the performance of our employees. The challenge would be to create a performance culture where in opportunities are provided for enhanced performance and where giving out optimum performance becomes a way of life.

Training and development is another area. In the IT industry training takes on a new connotation. It is not just about identifying training needs and giving the required training. It is foreseeing and anticipating the requirements and developing suitable training so that the employees are well-equipped to handle the challenges.

Another major challenge is how we are able to incorporate all the sub-systems in HR and help them in achieving the ultimate goal – exceptional performance. People have to be groomed to get in tune with the performance culture. Creating an environment that stimulates the creation of knowledge and its sustenance throughout the organization is big challenge. No longer can the HR department carry on with its traditional functions. However, Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) is to be put in place – to build and sustain a performance – driven culture. The role will shift to that of facilitator. HR will have to involve the whole organization in this process and act as a counselor and facilitator and that is the most gigantic challenge the HR of any organization faces.

In the face of such challenges faced by HR managers, a question arises as to what competencies an HR manager needs to equip them in order to survive in the turbulent phase of globalization.

COMPETENCIES FOR A HR MANAGER

In order to effectively deal with all the changes, HR professionals must develop competencies that will allow them to carry out their roles, competences like:

  • Flexibility
  • Team work
  • Communication
  • Decisiveness
  • Leadership
  • Strategic planning
  • Network building
  • Client service orientation
  • Organizational awareness
  • Self confidence
  • Sharing of expertise
  • Global and cultural understanding
  • Multiple language competencies

In addition to increasing and sustaining technological skills relating to communication developments, HR professionals will may also be required to increase their numerical and data compilations skills. As increasing demands merge to provide specific measurable results that prove effectiveness in their area, HR professionals will be required that produce quantifiable results that prove that their department is delivering specified outcomes based on the objectives and goals set forth by the organization.

In addition to delivering specific measurable developments, managers will also need to know what contributed to the results declared. This may mean that HR professionals will be required to be familiar with and administer employee survey and provide for accurate data compilation and regression analysis.

As a result of the increase in technology, innovation and globalization over the last 20 years, HR professionals around the world are forced to be more efficient, more effective and more competitive. They need to respond to the demands of global competitiveness by becoming more familiar with language skills, cultural awareness and diversity promotion. Additionally, HR professionals must be committed to continuous learning, being familiar with cutting edge communication. If HR managers won’t pay enough attention to their changing role, serous consequences could result, including the deterioration or even perhaps the elimination of the HR department. (Halcrow A, 1998)

TO SUM UP

However, the research has shown that the HR function in international organization has to meet a series of challenges. Three key conclusions about the role of HR professionals working in the field of international recruitment selection and assessment can be drawn:

  1. The added value of the HR function in an international firm lies in its ability to manage the delicate, balance between globally coordinated systems and sensitivity to local needs, including cultural differences, in a way that align with both business needs and senior management philosophy.
  2.  There now appear to be a distinction to be made between international HRM and global HRM.
  3. In this transition, the old functional divides between international recruitment, international management development and international reward management have become increasingly weak.

Over the last 20 years, the workplace has changed in more ways that one could have ever imagined, resulting from the increase in technology, innovation and globalization. The next decade will bring even greater change, impacting all facets of the workplace, including major changes for the HR department and HR managers. In order to respond to the demands of globalization, HR managers will require new skills and competencies relating to language and culture, technology capabilities to facilitate overseas communication, methods to measure and quantify effectiveness and evaluate strategies and return on investment. Evidently, these new skills and competencies will result in an emerging new role for HR managers, requiring them to be strategic business partner, supportive of the overall corporate strategy.

The future role of HR professional will change from a less administrative role to more of a strategic role. HR managers will continually be required to prove their effectiveness and their existence. They will be expected to understand international business practices and promote cultural diversity within the organization. They will need to understand the core business of the organization and become partners with line managers. They will need to prove that their initiatives and programs are result-oriented, providing specific measurable results in terms of business competitiveness that contribute positively to the bottom-line of the organization. They will be required to stay current with leading edge as more and more organization is faced with the demands of globalization and strategic alliances with other organization around the world.

REFERENCE

  1. Czebter, Anamaria, (2002), ‘Labor market and Gloablization: Human Resources management in global enterprises, Centre International de Formation Europeenne, Nice.
  2. Halcrow A, (1998), ‘Survey shows HR in Transition workforce’.
  3. Sparrow, Paul, R., (2006) ‘Globalization of HR at function level: Exploring the issues through International Recruitment, Selection and Assessment Process, working papers, Cornell University.
  4. Sparrow, Paul, R., Brewster, C., and Harris, H. (2004), ‘Globalizing Human Resource Management’, London, Routledge.

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Source by Bharti Venkatesh